V E R B S

These are action words.

Classes of Verbs - Transitive, Intransitive and Linking

    Transitive verbs have direct objects. NOTE: If you can say what or who after the verb, it is transitive.
    The models drank water before the show. (drank what - water)
    Intransitive verbs do not take an object.
    The models drank before the show. (before is not an object)
    Linking verbs join words and are either forms of the verb to be or sensory verbs such as feel, smell, sound and taste. Other verbs that are linking are those that cannot actually be seen and include seem, appear, became, grow, look, seem, remain and stay.
    The roses smell great.

    TENSES - Present, Past, Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect
    The following table shows the tenses with examples:
    Present Past Future Present
    Perfect
    Past
    Perfect
    Future
    Perfect
    Tense Current action Past action Future action Action completed at
    some indefinite time or
    still continuing
    Action completed at
    some definite time
    in the past
    Action to be completed
    at some definite time
    in the future
    Addition Add -s or
    -es to 3rd person singular
    Add -d or
    -ed
    Add shall or
    will
    Add have or
    has
    Add had Add shall have or
    will have
    Example I reply
    you reply
    she/he/it replies
    we reply
    you reply
    they reply
    I replied
    you replied
    she/he/it replied
    we replied
    you replied
    they replied
    I shall reply
    You will reply
    she/he/it will reply
    we shall reply
    you will reply
    they will reply
    I have replied
    you have replied
    she/he/it has replied
    we have replied
    you have replied
    they have replied
    I had replied
    you had replied
    she/he/it had replied
    we had replied
    you had replied
    they had replied
    I shall have replied
    you will have replied
    she/he/it will have replied
    we shall have replied
    you will have replied
    they will have replied

MOODS - Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive

    Indicative
    The indicative mood is used to ask questions or state facts.
    He was not pleased with the outcome of the meeting.
    Was he pleased with the outcome of the meeting?
    Imperative
    The imperative mood is for requests and to give instructions and can include or have the implied inclusion of the word please.
    Can you come to the meeting next week.
    Please can you come to next week's meeting. NOTE: No question marks are used in these examples as they are considered indirect instructions.
    Subjunctive
    The subjunctive mood is one of the most misused forms. Because it is not generally used in the spoken language, it is not used (unfortunately) in the written language.
    The following are examples of incorrect and correct usage::
    The request was that the rules are followed. (incorrect)
    Should be "The request was that the rules be followed." (correct)

VOICE - Active and Passive

    When the subject of the sentence does the action, the voice is active. When the subject receives the action, the verb is in passive voice.
    Active voice: James published the booklets.
    Passive voice: The booklets were published by James.

GERUNDS - verbs used as nouns

    A gerund is a verb ending in ing.
    Swimming is considered a very good exercise.